40 CFR Part 112 -- OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION

Sec.

112.1 General applicability.
112.2 Definitions.
112.3 Requirements for preparation and implementation of Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plans.
112.4 Amendment of SPCC Plans by Regional Administrator.
112.5 Amendment of Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plans by owners or operators.
112.6 Civil penalties for violation of oil pollution prevention regulations.
112.7 Guidelines for the preparation and implementation of a Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan.
Appendix to Part 112 -- Memorandum of Understanding Between the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Section II -- definitions

The Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation agree that for the purposes of Executive Order 11548, the term:

(1) Non-transportation-related onshore and offshore facilities means:

(A) Fixed onshore and offshore oil well drilling facilities including all equipment and appurtenances related thereto used in drilling operations for exploratory or development wells, but excluding any terminal facility, unit or process integrally associated with the handling or transferring of oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(B) Mobile onshore and offshore oil well drilling platforms, barges, trucks, or other mobile facilities including all equipment and appurtenances related thereto when such mobile facilities are fixed in position for the purpose of drilling operations for exploratory or development wells, but excluding any terminal facility, unit or process integrally associated with the handling or transferring of oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(C) Fixed onshore and offshore oil production structures, platforms, derricks, and rigs including all equipment and appurtenances related thereto, as well as completed wells and the wellhead separators, oil separators, and storage facilities used in the production of oil, but excluding any terminal facility, unit or process integrally associated with the handling or transferring of oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(D) Mobile onshore and offshore oil production facilities including all equipment and appurtenances related thereto as well as completed wells and wellhead equipment, piping from wellheads to oil separators, oil separators, and storage facilities used in the production of oil when such mobile facilities are fixed in position for the purpose of oil production operations, but excluding any terminal facility, unit or process integrally associated with the handling or transferring of oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(E) Oil refining facilities including all equipment and appurtenances related thereto as well as in-plant processing units, storage units, piping, drainage systems and waste treatment units used in the refining of oil, but excluding any terminal facility, unit or process integrally associated with the handling or transferring of oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(F) Oil storage facilities including all equipment and appurtenances related thereto as well as fixed bulk plant storage, terminal oil storage facilities, consumer storage, pumps and drainage systems used in the storage of oil, but excluding inline or breakout storage tanks needed for the continuous operation of a pipeline system and any terminal facility, unit or process integrally associated with the handling or transferring of oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(G) Industrial, commercial, agricultural or public facilities which use and store oil, but excluding any terminal facility, unit or process integrally associated with the handling or transferring of oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(H) Waste treatment facilities including in-plant pipelines, effluent discharge lines, and storage tanks, but excluding waste treatment facilities located on vessels and terminal storage tanks and appurtenances for the reception of oily ballast water or tank washings from vessels and associated systems used for off-loading vessels.

(I) Loading racks, transfer hoses, loading arms and other equipment which are appurtenant to a nontransportation-related facility or terminal facility and which are used to transfer oil in bulk to or from highway vehicles or railroad cars.

(J) Highway vehicles and railroad cars which are used for the transport of oil exclusively within the confines of a nontransportation-related facility and which are not intended to transport oil in interstate or intrastate commerce.

(K) Pipeline systems which are used for the transport of oil exclusively within the confines of a nontransportation-related facility or terminal facility and which are not intended to transport oil in interstate or intrastate commerce, but excluding pipeline systems used to transfer oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(2) Transportation-related onshore and offshore facilities means:

(A) Onshore and offshore terminal facilities including transfer hoses, loading arms and other equipment and appurtenances used for the purpose of handling or transferring oil in bulk to or from a vessel as well as storage tanks and appurtenances for the reception of oily ballast water or tank washings from vessels, but excluding terminal waste treatment facilities and terminal oil storage facilities.

(B) Transfer hoses, loading arms and other equipment appurtenant to a non-transportation-related facility which is used to transfer oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(C) Interstate and intrastate onshore and offshore pipeline systems including pumps and appurtenances related thereto as well as in-line or breakout storage tanks needed for the continuous operation of a pipeline system, and pipelines from onshore and offshore oil production facilities, but excluding onshore and offshore piping from wellheads to oil separators and pipelines which are used for the transport of oil exclusively within the confines of a nontransportation-related facility or terminal facility and which are not intended to transport oil in interstate or intrastate commerce or to transfer oil in bulk to or from a vessel.

(D) Highway vehicles and railroad cars which are used for the transport of oil in interstate or intrastate commerce and the equipment and appurtenances related thereto, and equipment used for the fueling of locomotive units, as well as the rights-of-way on which they operate. Excluded are highway vehicles and railroad cars and motive power used exclusively within the confines of a nontransportation-related facility or terminal facility and which are not intended for use in interstate or intrastate commerce.


112.1 General applicability.

(a) This part establishes procedures, methods and equipment and other requirements for equipment to prevent the discharge of oil from non-transportation-related onshore and offshore facilities into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, this part applies to owners or operators of non-transportation-related onshore and offshore facilities engaged in drilling, producing, gathering, storing, processing, refining, transferring, distributing or consuming oil and oil products, and which, due to their location, could reasonably be expected to discharge oil in harmful quantities, as defined in Part 110 of this chapter, into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines.

(c) As provided in section 313 (86 Stat. 875) departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Federal government are subject to these regulations to the same extent as any person, except for the provisions of 112.6.

(d) This part does not apply to:

(1) Facilities, equipment or operations which are not subject to the jurisdiction of the Environmental Protection Agency, as follows:

(i) Onshore and offshore facilities, which, due to their location, could not reasonably be expected to discharge oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines. This determination shall be based solely upon a consideration of the geographical, locational aspects of the facility (such as proximity to navigable waters or adjoining shorelines, land contour, drainage, etc.) and shall exclude consideration of manmade features such as dikes, equipment or other structures which may serve to restrain, hinder, contain, or otherwise prevent a discharge of oil from reaching navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines; and

(ii) Equipment or operations of vessels or transportation-related onshore and offshore facilities which are subject to authority and control of the Department of Transportation, as defined in the Memorandum of Understanding between the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, dated November 24, 1971, 36 FR 24000.

(2) Those facilities which, although otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the Environmental Protection Agency, meet both of the following requirements:

(i) The underground buried storage capacity of the facility is 42,000 gallons or less of oil, and

(ii) The storage capacity, which is not buried, of the facility is 1,320 gallons or less of oil, provided no single container has a capacity in excess of 660 gallons.

(e) This part provides for the preparation and implementation of Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plans prepared in accordance with 112.7, designed to complement existing laws, regulations, rules, standards, policies and procedures pertaining to safety standards, fire prevention and pollution prevention rules, so as to form a comprehensive balanced Federal/State spill prevention program to minimize the potential for oil discharges. Compliance with this part does not in any way relieve the owner or operator of an onshore or an offshore facility from compliance with other Federal, State or local laws.
(38 FR 34165, Dec. 11, 1973, as amended at 41 FR 12657, Mar. 26, 1976)


112.2 Definitions.

For the purposes of this part:

(a) Oil means oil of any kind or in any form, including, but not limited to petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse and oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil.

(b) Discharge includes but is not limited to, any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying or dumping. For purposes of this part, the term discharge shall not include any discharge of oil which is authorized by a permit issued pursuant to section 13 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 (30 Stat. 1121, 33 U.S.C. 407), or sections 402 or 405 of the FWPCA Amendments of 1972 (86 Stat. 816 et seq., 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.).

(c) Onshore facility means any facility of any kind located in, on, or under any land within the United States, other than submerged lands, which is not a transportation-related facility.

(d) Offshore facility means any facility of any kind located in, on, or under any of the navigable waters of the United States, which is not a transportation-related facility.

(e) Owner or operator means any person owning or operating an onshore facility or an offshore facility, and in the case of any abandoned offshore facility, the person who owned or operated such facility immediately prior to such abandonment.

(f) Person includes an individual, firm, corporation, association, and a partnership.

(g) Regional Administrator, means the Regional Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, or his designee, in and for the Region in which the facility is located.

(h) Transportation-related and non-transportation-related as applied to an onshore or offshore facility, are defined in the Memorandum of Understanding between the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, dated November 24, 1971, 36 FR 24080.

(i) Spill event means a discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines in harmful quantities, as defined at 40 CFR Part 110.

(j) United States means the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Canal Zone, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(k) The term navigable waters of the United States means navigable waters as defined in section 502(7) of the FWPCA, and includes:

(1) All navigable waters of the United States, as defined in judicial decisions prior to passage of the 1972 Amendments to the FWPCA (Pub. L. 92-500), and tributaries of such waters;

(2) Interstate waters;

(3) Intrastate lakes, rivers, and streams which are utilized by interstate travelers for recreational or other purposes; and

(4) Intrastate lakes, rivers, and streams from which fish or shellfish are taken and sold in interstate commerce.

(l) Vessel means every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water, other than a public vessel.


112.3 Requirements for preparation and implementation of Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plans.

(a) Owners or operators of onshore and offshore facilities in operation on or before the effective date of this part that have discharged or, due to their location, could reasonably be expected to discharge oil in harmful quantities, as defined in 40 CFR Part 110, into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines, shall prepare a Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan (hereinafter "SPCC Plan''), in writing and in accordance with 112.7. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this section, such SPCC Plan shall be prepared within six months after effective date of this part and shall be fully implemented as soon as possible, but not later than one year after the effective date of this part.

(b) Owners or operators of onshore and offshore facilities that become operational after the effective date of this part, and that have discharged or could reasonably be expected to discharge oil in harmful quantities, as defined in 40 CFR Part 110, into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines, shall prepare an SPCC Plan in accordance with 112.7. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this section, such SPCC Plan shall be prepared within six months after the date such facility begins operations and shall be fully implemented as soon as possible, but not later than one year after such facility begins operations.

(c) Owners or operators of onshore and offshore mobile or portable facilities, such as onshore drilling or workover rigs, barge mounted offshore drilling or workover rigs, and portable fueling facilities shall prepare and implement an SPCC Plan as required by paragraphs (a), (b) and (d) of this section. The owners or operators of such facility need not prepare a new SPCC Plan each time the facility is moved to a new site. The SPCC Plan may be a general plan, prepared in accordance with 112.7, using good engineering practice. When the mobile or portable facility is moved, it must be located and installed using the spill prevention practices outlined in the SPCC Plan for the facility. No mobile or portable facility subject to this regulation shall operate unless the SPCC Plan has been implemented. The SPCC Plan shall only apply while the facility is in a fixed (non-transportation) operating mode.

(d) No SPCC Plan shall be effective to satisfy the requirements of part unless it has been reviewed by a Registered Professional Engineer and certified to by such Professional Engineer. By means of this certification the engineer, having examined the facility and being familiar with the provisions of this part, shall attest that the SPCC Plan has been prepared in accordance with good engineering practices. Such certification shall in no way relieve the owner or operator of an onshore or offshore facility of his duty to prepare and fully implement such Plan in accordance with 112.7, as required by paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this section.

(e) Owners or operators of a facility for which an SPCC Plan is required pursuant to paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of this section shall maintain a complete copy of the Plan at such facility if the facility is normally attended at least 8 hours per day, or at the nearest field office if the facility is not so attended, and shall make such Plan available to the Regional Administrator for on-site review during normal working hours.

(f) Extensions of time. (1) The Regional Administrator may authorize an extension of time for the preparation and full implementation of an SPCC Plan beyond the time permitted for the preparation and implementation of an SPCC Plan pursuant to paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of this section where he finds that the owner or operator of a facility subject to paragraphs (a), (b) or (c) of this section cannot fully comply with the requirements of this part as a result of either nonavailability of qualified personnel, or delays in construction or equipment delivery beyond the control and without the fault of such owner or operator or their respective agents or employees.

(2) Any owner or operator seeking an extension of time pursuant to paragraph (f)(1) of this section may submit a letter of request to the Regional Administrator. Such letter shall include:

(i) A complete copy of the SPCC Plan, if completed;

(ii) A full explanation of the cause for any such delay and the specific aspects of the SPCC Plan affected by the delay;

(iii) A full discussion of actions being taken or contemplated to minimize or mitigate such delay;

(iv) A proposed time schedule for the implementation of any corrective actions being taken or contemplated, including interim dates for completion of tests or studies, installation and operation of any necessary equipment or other preventive measures.

In addition, such owner or operator may present additional oral or written statements in support of his letter of request.

(3) The submission of a letter of request for extension of time pursuant to paragraph (f)(2) of this section shall in no way relieve the owner or operator from his obligation to comply with the requirements of 112.3 (a), (b) or (c). Where an extension of time is authorized by the Regional Administrator for particular equipment or other specific aspects of the SPCC Plan, such extension shall in no way affect the owner's or operator's obligation to comply with the requirements of 112.3 (a), (b) or (c) with respect to other equipment or other specific aspects of the SPCC Plan for which an extension of time has not been expressly authorized.
(38 FR 34165, Dec. 11, 1973, as amended at 41 FR 12657, Mar. 26, 1976)


112.4 Amendment of SPCC Plans by Regional Administrator.

(a) Notwithstanding compliance with 112.3, whenever a facility subject to 112.3 (a), (b) or (c) has: Discharged more than 1,000 U.S. gallons of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines in a single spill event, or discharged oil in harmful quantities, as defined in 40 CFR Part 110, into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines in two spill events, reportable under section 311(b)(5) of the FWPCA, occurring within any twelve month period, the owner or operator of such facility shall submit to the Regional Administrator, within 60 days from the time such facility becomes subject to this section, the following:

(1) Name of the facility;

(2) Name(s) of the owner or operator of the facility;

(3) Location of the facility;

(4) Date and year of initial facility operation;

(5) Maximum storage or handling capacity of the facility and normal daily throughput;

(6) Description of the facility, including maps, flow diagrams, and topographical maps;

(7) A complete copy of the SPCC Plan with any amendments;

(8) The cause(s) of such spill, including a failure analysis of system or subsystem in which the failure occurred;

(9) The corrective actions and/or countermeasures taken, including an adequate description of equipment repairs and/or replacements;

(10) Additional preventive measures taken or contemplated to minimize the possibility of recurrence;

(11) Such other information as the Regional Administrator may reasonably require pertinent to the Plan or spill event.

(b) Section 112.4 shall not apply until the expiration of the time permitted for the preparation and implementation of an SPCC Plan pursuant to 112.3 (a), (b), (c) and (f).

(c) A complete copy of all information provided to the Regional Administrator pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall be sent at the same time to the State agency in charge of water pollution control activities in and for the State in which the facility is located. Upon receipt of such information such State agency may conduct a review and make recommendations to the Regional Administrator as to further procedures, methods, equipment and other requirements for equipment necessary to prevent and to contain discharges of oil from such facility.

(d) After review of the SPCC Plan for a facility subject to paragraph (a) of this section, together with all other information submitted by the owner or operator of such facility, and by the State agency under paragraph (c) of this section, the Regional Administrator may require the owner or operator of such facility to amend the SPCC Plan if he finds that the Plan does not meet the requirements of this part or that the amendment of the Plan is necessary to prevent and to contain discharges of oil from such facility.

(e) When the Regional Administrator proposes to require an amendment to the SPCC Plan, he shall notify the facility operator by certified mail addressed to, or by personal delivery to, the facility owner or operator, that he proposes to require an amendment to the Plan, and shall specify the terms of such amendment. If the facility owner or operator is a corporation, a copy of such notice shall also be mailed to the registered agent, if any, of such corporation in the State where such facility is located. Within 30 days from receipt of such notice, the facility owner or operator may submit written information, views, and arguments on the amendment. After considering all relevant material presented, the Regional Administrator shall notify the facility owner or operator of any amendment required or shall rescind the notice. The amendment required by the Regional Administrator shall become part of the Plan 30 days after such notice, unless the Regional Administrator, for good cause, shall specify another effective date. The owner or operator of the facility shall implement the amendment of the Plan as soon as possible, but not later than six months after the amendment becomes part of the Plan, unless the Regional Administrator specifies another date.

(f) An owner or operator may appeal a decision made by the Regional Administrator requiring an amendment to an SPCC Plan. The appeal shall be made to the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and must be made in writing within 30 days of receipt of the notice from the Regional Administrator requiring the amendment. A complete copy of the appeal must be sent to the Regional Administrator at the time the appeal is made. The appeal shall contain a clear and concise statement of the issues and points of fact in the case. It may also contain additional information from the owner or operator, or from any other person. The Administrator or his designee may request additional information from the owner or operator, or from any other person. The Administrator or his designee shall render a decision within 60 days of receiving the appeal and shall notify the owner or operator of his decision.
(38 FR 34165, Dec. 11, 1973, as amended at 41 FR 12658, Mar. 26, 1976)


112.5 Amendment of Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plans by owners or operators.

(a) Owners or operators of facilities subject to 112.3 (a), (b) or (c) shall amend the SPCC Plan for such facility in accordance with 112.7 whenever there is a change in facility design, construction, operation or maintenance which materially affects the facility's potential for the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shore lines. Such amendments shall be fully implemented as soon as possible, but not later than six months after such change occurs.

(b) Notwithstanding compliance with paragraph (a) of this section, owners and operators of facilities subject to 112.3 (a), (b) or (c) shall complete a review and evaluation of the SPCC Plan at least once every three years from the date such facility becomes subject to this part. As a result of this review and evaluation, the owner or operator shall amend the SPCC Plan within six months of the review to include more effective prevention and control technology if: (1) Such technology will significantly reduce the likelihood of a spill event from the facility, and (2) if such technology has been field-proven at the time of the review.

(c) No amendment to an SPCC Plan shall be effective to satisfy the requirements of this section unless it has been certified by a Professional Engineer in accordance with 112.3(d).


112.6 Civil penalties for violation of oil pollution prevention regulations.
Owners or operators of facilities subject to 112.3 (a), (b) or (c) who violate the requirements of this Part 112 by failing or refusing to comply with any of the provisions of 112.3, 112.4 or 112.5 shall be liable for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day such violation continues. Civil penalties shall be imposed in accordance with procedures set out in Part 114 of this subchapter D.

(Secs. 311(j), 501(a), Pub. L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 868, 885 (33 U.S.C. 1321(j), 1361(a)))
(39 FR 31602, Aug. 29, 1974)


40 CFR 112.7

112.7 Guidelines for the preparation and implementation of a Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan.

The SPCC Plan shall be a carefully thought-out plan, prepared in accordance with good engineering practices, and which has the full approval of management at a level with authority to commit the necessary resources. If the plan calls for additional facilities or procedures, methods, or equipment not yet fully operational, these items should be discussed in separate paragraphs, and the details of installation and operational start-up should be explained separately. The complete SPCC Plan shall follow the sequence outlined below, and include a discussion of the facility's conformance with the appropriate guidelines listed:

(a) A facility which has experienced one or more spill events within twelve months prior to the effective date of this part should include a written description of each such spill, corrective action taken and plans for preventing recurrence.

(b) Where experience indicates a reasonable potential for equipment failure (such as tank overflow, rupture, or leakage), the plan should include a prediction of the direction, rate of flow, and total quantity of oil which could be discharged from the facility as a result of each major type of failure.

(c) Appropriate containment and/or diversionary structures or equipment to prevent discharged oil from reaching a navigable water course should be provided. One of the following preventive systems or its equivalent should be used as a minimum:

(1) Onshore facilities:

(i) Dikes, berms or retaining walls sufficiently impervious to contain spilled oil;
(ii) Curbing;
(iii) Culverting, gutters or other drainage systems;
(iv) Weirs, booms or other barriers;
(v) Spill diversion ponds;
(vi) Retention ponds;
(vii) Sorbent materials.

(2) Offshore facilities:
(i) Curbing, drip pans;
(ii) Sumps and collection systems.

(d) When it is determined that the installation of structures or equipment listed in 112.7(c) to prevent discharged oil from reaching the navigable waters is not practicable from any onshore or offshore facility, the owner or operator should clearly demonstrate such impracticability and provide the following:

(1) A strong oil spill contingency plan following the provision of 40 CFR Part 109.

(2) A written commitment of manpower, equipment and materials required to expeditiously control and remove any harmful quantity of oil discharged.

(e) In addition to the minimal prevention standards listed under 112.7(c), sections of the Plan should include a complete discussion of conformance with the following applicable guidelines, other effective spill prevention and containment procedures (or, if more stringent, with State rules, regulations and guidelines):

(1) Facility drainage (onshore); (excluding production facilities). (i) Drainage from diked storage areas should be restrained by valves or other positive means to prevent a spill or other excessive leakage of oil into the drainage system or inplant effluent treatment system, except where plan systems are designed to handle such leakage. Diked areas may be emptied by pumps or ejectors; however, these should be manually activated and the condition of the accumulation should be examined before starting to be sure no oil will be discharged into the water.

(ii) Flapper-type drain valves should not be used to drain diked areas. Valves used for the drainage of diked areas should, as far as practical, be of manual, open-and-closed design. When plant drainage drains directly into water courses and not into wastewater treatment plants, retained storm water should be inspected as provided in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii) (B), (C) and (D) of this section before drainage.

(iii) Plant drainage systems from undiked areas should, if possible, flow into ponds, lagoons or catchment basins, designed to retain oil or return it to the facility. Catchment basins should not be located in areas subject to periodic flooding.

(iv) If plant drainage is not engineered as above, the final discharge of all in-plant ditches should be equipped with a diversion system that could, in the event of an uncontrolled spill, return the oil to the plant.

(v) Where drainage waters are treated in more than one treatment unit, natural hydraulic flow should be used. If pump transfer is needed, two "lift'' pumps should be provided, and at least one of the pumps should be permanently installed when such treatment is continuous. In any event, whatever techniques are used facility drainage systems should be adequately engineered to prevent oil from reaching navigable waters in the event of equipment failure or human error at the facility.

(2) Bulk storage tanks (onshore); (excluding production facilities). (i) No tank should be used for the storage of oil unless its material and construction are compatible with the material stored and conditions of storage such as pressure and temperature, etc.

(ii) All bulk storage tank installations should be constructed so that a secondary means of containment is provided for the entire contents of the largest single tank plus sufficient freeboard to allow for precipitation. Diked areas should be sufficiently impervious to contain spilled oil. Dikes, containment curbs, and pits are commonly employed for this purpose, but they may not always be appropriate. An alternative system could consist of a complete drainage trench enclosure arranged so that a spill could terminate and be safely confined in an in-plant catchment basin or holding pond.

(iii) Drainage of rainwater from the diked area into a storm drain or an effluent discharge that empties into an open water course, lake, or pond, and bypassing the in-plant treatment system may be acceptable if:

(A) The bypass valve is normally sealed closed.

(B) Inspection of the run-off rain water ensures compliance with applicable water quality standards and will not cause a harmful discharge as defined in 40 CFR Part 110.

(C) The bypass valve is opened, and resealed following drainage under responsible supervision.

(D) Adequate records are kept of such events.

(iv) Buried metallic storage tanks represent a potential for undetected spills. A new buried installation should be protected from corrosion by coatings, cathodic protection or other effective methods compatible with local soil conditions. Such buried tanks should at least be subjected to regular pressure testing.

(v) Partially buried metallic tanks for the storage of oil should be avoided, unless the buried section of the shell is adequately coated, since partial burial in damp earth can cause rapid corrosion of metallic surfaces, especially at the earth/air interface.

(vi) Aboveground tanks should be subject to periodic integrity testing, taking into account tank design (floating roof, etc.) and using such techniques as hydrostatic testing, visual inspection or a system of non-destructive shell thickness testing. Comparison records should be kept where appropriate, and tank supports and foundations should be included in these inspections. In addition, the outside of the tank should frequently be observed by operating personnel for signs of deterioration, leaks which might cause a spill, or accumulation of oil inside diked areas.

(vii) To control leakage through defective internal heating coils, the following factors should be considered and applied, as appropriate.

(A) The steam return or exhaust lines from internal heating coils which discharge into an open water course should be monitored for contamination, or passed through a settling tank, skimmer, or other separation or retention system.

(B) The feasibility of installing an external heating system should also be considered.

(viii) New and old tank installations should, as far as practical, be fail-safe engineered or updated into a fail-safe engineered installation to avoid spills. Consideration should be given to providing one or more of the following devices:

(A) High liquid level alarms with an audible or visual signal at a constantly manned operation or surveillance station; in smaller plants an audible air vent may suffice.

(B) Considering size and complexity of the facility, high liquid level pump cutoff devices set to stop flow at a predetermined tank content level.

(C) Direct audible or code signal communication between the tank gauger and the pumping station.

(D) A fast response system for determining the liquid level of each bulk storage tank such as digital computers, telepulse, or direct vision gauges or their equivalent.

(E) Liquid level sensing devices should be regularly tested to insure proper operation.

(ix) Plant effluents which are discharged into navigable waters should have disposal facilities observed frequently enough to detect possible system upsets that could cause an oil spill event.

(x) Visible oil leaks which result in a loss of oil from tank seams, gaskets, rivets and bolts sufficiently large to cause the accumulation of oil in diked areas should be promptly corrected.

(xi) Mobile or portable oil storage tanks (onshore) should be positioned or located so as to prevent spilled oil from reaching navigable waters. A secondary means of containment, such as dikes or catchment basins, should be furnished for the largest single compartment or tank. These facilities should be located where they will not be subject to periodic flooding or washout.

(3) Facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant process (onshore); (excluding production facilities). (i) Buried piping installations should have a protective wrapping and coating and should be cathodically protected if soil conditions warrant. If a section of buried line is exposed for any reason, it should be carefully examined for deterioration. If corrosion damage is found, additional examination and corrective action should be taken as indicated by the magnitude of the damage. An alternative would be the more frequent use of exposed pipe corridors or galleries.

(ii) When a pipeline is not in service, or in standby service for an extended time the terminal connection at the transfer point should be capped or blank-flanged, and marked as to origin.

(iii) Pipe supports should be properly designed to minimize abrasion and corrosion and allow for expansion and contraction.

(iv) All aboveground valves and pipelines should be subjected to regular examinations by operating personnel at which time the general condition of items, such as flange joints, expansion joints, valve glands and bodies, catch pans, pipeline supports, locking of valves, and metal surfaces should be assessed. In addition, periodic pressure testing may be warranted for piping in areas where facility drainage is such that a failure might lead to a spill event.

(v) Vehicular traffic granted entry into the facility should be warned verbally or by appropriate signs to be sure that the vehicle, because of its size, will not endanger above ground piping.

(4) Facility tank car and tank truck loading/unloading rack (onshore). (i) Tank car and tank truck loading/unloading procedures should meet the minimum requirements and regulation established by the Department of Transportation.

(ii) Where rack area drainage does not flow into a catchment basin or treatment facility designed to handle spills, a quick drainage system should be used for tank truck loading and unloading areas. The containment system should be designed to hold at least maximum capacity of any single compartment of a tank car or tank truck loaded or unloaded in the plant.

(iii) An interlocked warning light or physical barrier system, or warning signs, should be provided in loading/unloading areas to prevent vehicular departure before complete disconnect of flexible or fixed transfer lines.

(iv) Prior to filling and departure of any tank car or tank truck, the lowermost drain and all outlets of such vehicles should be closely examined for leakage, and if necessary, tightened, adjusted, or replaced to prevent liquid leakage while in transit.

(5) Oil production facilities (onshore) -- (i) Definition. An onshore production facility may include all wells, flowlines, separation equipment, storage facilities, gathering lines, and auxiliary non-transportation-related equipment and facilities in a single geographical oil or gas field operated by a single operator.

(ii) Oil production facility (onshore) drainage. (A) At tank batteries and central treating stations where an accidental discharge of oil would have a reasonable possibility of reaching navigable waters, the dikes or equivalent required under 112.7(c)(1) should have drains closed and sealed at all times except when rainwater is being drained. Prior to drainage, the diked area should be inspected as provided in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii) (B), (C), and (D) of this section. Accumulated oil on the rainwater should be picked up and returned to storage or disposed of in accordance with approved methods.

(B) Field drainage ditches, road ditches, and oil traps, sumps or skimmers, if such exist, should be inspected at regularly scheduled intervals for accumulation of oil that may have escaped from small leaks. Any such accumulations should be removed.

(iii) Oil production facility (onshore) bulk storage tanks. (A) No tank should be used for the storage of oil unless its material and construction are compatible with the material stored and the conditions of storage.

(B) All tank battery and central treating plant installations should be provided with a secondary means of containment for the entire contents of the largest single tank if feasible, or alternate systems such as those outlined in 112.7(c)(1). Drainage from undiked areas should be safely confined in a catchment basin or holding pond.

(C) All tanks containing oil should be visually examined by a competent person for condition and need for maintenance on a scheduled periodic basis. Such examination should include the foundation and supports of tanks that are above the surface of the ground.

(D) New and old tank battery installations should, as far as practical, be fail-safe engineered or updated into a fail-safe engineered installation to prevent spills. Consideration should be given to one or more of the following:

(1) Adequate tank capacity to assure that a tank will not overfill should a pumper/gauger be delayed in making his regular rounds.

(2) Overflow equalizing lines between tanks so that a full tank can overflow to an adjacent tank.

(3) Adequate vacuum protection to prevent tank collapse during a pipeline run.

(4) High level sensors to generate and transmit an alarm signal to the computer where facilities are a part of a computer production control system.

(iv) Facility transfer operations, oil production facility (onshore). (A) All above ground valves and pipelines should be examined periodically on a scheduled basis for general condition of items such as flange joints, valve glands and bodies, drip pans, pipeline supports, pumping well polish rod stuffing boxes, bleeder and gauge valves.

(B) Salt water (oil field brine) disposal facilities should be exained often, particularly following a sudden change in atmospheric temperature to detect possible system upsets that could cause an oil discharge.

(C) Production facilities should have a program of flowline maintenance to prevent spills from this source. The program should include periodic examinations, corrosion protection, flowline replacement, and adequate records, as appropriate, for the individual facility.

(6) Oil drilling and workover facilities (onshore). (i) Mobile drilling or workover equipment should be positioned or located so as to prevent spilled oil from reaching navigable waters.

(ii) Depending on the location, catchment basins or diversion structures may be necessary to intercept and contain spills of fuel, crude oil, or oily drilling fluids.

(iii) Before drilling below any casing string or during workover operations, a blowout prevention (BOP) assembly and well control system should be installed that is capable of controlling any well head pressure that is expected to be encountered while that BOP assembly is on the well. Casing and BOP installations should be in accordance with State regulatory agency requirements.

(7) Oil drilling, production, or workover facilities (offshore). (i) Definition: "An oil drilling, production or workover facility (offshore)'' may include all drilling or workover equipment, wells, flowlines, gathering lines, platforms, and auxiliary nontransportation-related equipment and facilities in a single geographical oil or gas field operated by a single operator.

(ii) Oil drainage collection equipment should be used to prevent and control small oil spillage around pumps, glands, valves, flanges, expansion joints, hoses, drain lines, separators, treaters, tanks, and allied equipment. Drains on the facility should be controlled and directed toward a central collection sump or equivalent collection system sufficient to prevent discharges of oil into the navigable waters of the United States. Where drains and sumps are not practicable oil contained in collection equipment should be removed as often as necessary to prevent overflow.

(iii) For facilities employing a sump system, sump and drains should be adequately sized and a spare pump or equivalent method should be available to remove liquid from the sump and assure that oil does not escape. A regular scheduled preventive maintenance inspection and testing program should be employed to assure reliable operation of the liquid removal system and pump start-up device. Redundant automatic sump pumps and control devices may be required on some installations.

(iv) In areas where separators and treaters are equipped with dump valves whose predominant mode of failure is in the closed position and pollution risk is high, the facility should be specially equipped to prevent the escape of oil. This could be accomplished by extending the flare line to a diked area if the separator is near shore, equipping it with a high liquid level sensor that will automatically shut-in wells producing to the separator, parallel redundant dump valves, or other feasible alternatives to prevent oil discharges.

(v) Atmospheric storage or surge tanks should be equipped with high liquid level sensing devices or other acceptable alternatives to prevent oil discharges.

(vi) Pressure tanks should be equipped with high and low pressure sensing devices to activate an alarm and/or control the flow or other acceptable alternatives to prevent oil discharges.

(vii) Tanks should be equipped with suitable corrosion protection.

(viii) A written procedure for inspecting and testing pollution prevention equipment and systems should be prepared and maintained at the facility. Such procedures should be included as part of the SPCC Plan.

(ix) Testing and inspection of the pollution prevention equipment and systems at the facility should be conducted by the owner or operator on a scheduled periodic basis commensurate with the complexity, conditions and circumstances of the facility or other appropriate regulations.

(x) Surface and subsurface well shut-in valves and devices in use at the facility should be sufficiently described to determine method of activation or control, e.g., pressure differential, change in fluid or flow conditions, combination of pressure and flow, manual or remote control mechanisms. Detailed records for each well, while not necessarily part of the plan should be kept by the owner or operator.

(xi) Before drilling below any casing string, and during workover operations a blowout preventer (BOP) assembly and well control system should be installed that is capable of controlling any well-head pressure that is expected to be encountered while that BOP assembly is on the well. Casing and BOP installations should be in accordance with State regulatory agency requirements.

(xii) Extraordinary well control measures should be provided should emergency conditions, including fire, loss of control and other abnormal conditions, occur. The degree of control system redundancy should vary with hazard exposure and probable consequences of failure. It is recommended that surface shut-in systems have redundant or "fail close'' valving. Subsurface safety valves may not be needed in wells that will not flow but should be installed as required by applicable State regulations.

(xiii) In order that there will be no misunderstanding of joint and separate duties and obligations to perform work in a safe and pollution free manner, written instructions should be prepared by the owner or operator for contractors and subcontractors to follow whenever contract activities include servicing a well or systems appurtenant to a well or pressure vessel. Such instructions and procedures should be maintained at the offshore production facility. Under certain circumstances and conditions such contractor activities may require the presence at the facility of an authorized representative of the owner or operator who would intervene when necessary to prevent a spill event.

(xiv) All manifolds (headers) should be equipped with check valves on individual flowlines.

(xv) If the shut-in well pressure is greater than the working pressure of the flowline and manifold valves up to and including the header valves associated with that individual flowline, the flowline should be equipped with a high pressure sensing device and shut-in valve at the wellhead unless provided with a pressure relief system to prevent over pressuring.

(xvi) All pipelines appurtenant to the facility should be protected from corrosion. Methods used, such as protective coatings or cathodic protection, should be discussed.

(xvii) Sub-marine pipelines appurtenant to the facility should be adequately protected against environmental stresses and other activities such as fishing operations.

(xviii) Sub-marine pipelines appurtenant to the facility should be in good operating condition at all times and inspected on a scheduled periodic basis for failures. Such inspections should be documented and maintained at the facility.

(8) Inspections and records. Inspections required by this part should be in accordance with written procedures developed for the facility by the owner or operator. These written procedures and a record of the inspections, signed by the appropriate supervisor or inspector, should be made part of the SPCC Plan and maintained for a period of three years.

(9) Security (excluding oil production facilities). (i) All plants handling, processing, and storing oil should be fully fenced, and entrance gates should be locked and/or guarded when the plant is not in production or is unattended.

(ii) The master flow and drain valves and any other valves that will permit direct outward flow of the tank's content to the surface should be securely locked in the closed position when in non-operating or non-standby status.

(iii) The starter control on all oil pumps should be locked in the "off'' position or located at a site accessible only to authorized personnel when the pumps are in a non-operating or non-standby status.

(iv) The loading/unloading connections of oil pipelines should be securely capped or blank-flanged when not in service or standby service for an extended time. This security practice should also apply to pipelines that are emptied of liquid content either by draining or by inert gas pressure.

(v) Facility lighting should be commensurate with the type and location of the facility. Consideration should be given to: (A) Discovery of spills occurring during hours of darkness, both by operating personnel, if present, and by non-operating personnel (the general public, local police, etc.) and (B) prevention of spills occurring through acts of vandalism.

(10) Personnel, training and spill prevention procedures. (i) Owners or operators are responsible for properly instructing their personnel in the operation and maintenance of equipment to prevent the discharges of oil and applicable pollution control laws, rules and regulations.

(ii) Each applicable facility should have a designated person who is accountable for oil spill prevention and who reports to line management.

(iii) Owners or operators should schedule and conduct spill prevention briefings for their operating personnel at intervals frequent enough to assure adequate understanding of the SPCC Plan for that facility. Such briefings should highlight and describe known spill events or failures, malfunctioning components, and recently developed precautionary measures.
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