122.1 Purpose and scope.

(a) Coverage. (1) These regulations contain provisions for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program under section 318, 402, and 405 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) (Pub. L. 92-500, as amended by Pub. L. 95-217, Pub. L. 95-576, Pub. L. 96-483, Pub. L. 97-117, and Pub. L. 100-4; 33 U.S.C.1251 et seq.)

(2) These regulations cover basic EPA permitting requirements (Part 122), what a State must do to obtain approval to operate its program in lieu of a Federal program and minimum requirements for administering the approved State program (Part 123), and procedures for EPA processing of permit applications and appeals (Part 124). Part 124 is also applicable to other EPA permitting programs, as detailed in that part.

(b) Scope of the NPDES permit requirement. (1) The NPDES program requires permits for the discharge of "pollutants'' from any "point source'' into "waters of the United States.'' The terms "pollutant'', "point source'' and "waters of the United States'' are defined in 122.2.

(2) The following are point sources requiring NPDES permits for discharges:
(i) Concentrated animal feeding operations as defined in 122.23;
(ii) Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities as defined in 122.24;
(iii) Discharges into aquaculture projects as set forth in 122.25;
(iv) Discharges of storm water as set forth in 122.26; and
(v) Silvicultural point sources as defined in 122.27.

(3) The permit program established under this part also applies to owners or operators of any treatment works treating domestic sewage, whether or not the treatment works is otherwise required to obtain an NPDES permit in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, unless all requirements implementing section 405(d) of CWA applicable to the treatment works treating domestic sewage are included in a permit issued under the appropriate provisions of subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, or the Clean Air Act, or under State permit programs approved by the Administrator as adequate to assure compliance with section 405 of the CWA.
(4) The Regional Administrator may designate any person subject to the standards for sewage sludge use and disposal as a "treatment works treating domestic sewage'' as defined in 122.1, where he or she finds that a permit is necessary to protect public health and the environment from the adverse effects of sewage sludge or to ensure compliance with the technical standards for sludge use and disposal developed under CWA section 405(d). Any person designated as "treatment works treating domestic sewage'' shall submit an application for a permit under 122.21 within 120 days of being notified by the Regional Administrator that a permit is required. The Regional Administrator's decision to designate a person as a "treatment works treating domestic sewage'' under this paragraph shall be stated in the fact sheet or statement of basis for the permit.

(c) State programs. Certain requirements set forth in Parts 122 and 124 are made applicable to approved State programs by reference in Part 123. These references are set forth in 123.25. If a section or paragraph of Parts 122 or 124 is applicable to States, through reference in 123.25, that fact is signaled by the following words at the end of the section or paragraph heading: (Applicable to State programs, see 123.25). If these words are absent, the section (or paragraph) applies only to EPA administered permits.
(d) Relation to other requirements -- (1) Permit application forms. Applicants for EPA issued permits must submit their applications on EPA's permit application forms when available. Most of the information requested on these application forms is required by these regulations. The basic information required in the general form (Form 1) and the additional information required for NPDES applications (Forms 2 a through d) are listed in 122.21. Applicants for State issued permits must use State forms which must require at a minimum the information listed in these sections.

(2) Technical regulations. The NPDES permit program has separate additional regulations. These separate regulations are used by permit issuing authorities to determine what requirements must be placed in permits if they are issued. These separate regulations are located at 40 CFR Parts 125, 129, 133, 136, 40 CFR subchapter N (Parts 400 through 460), and 40 CFR Part 503.

(e) Public participation. This rule establishes the requirements for public participation in EPA and State permit issuance and enforcement and related variance proceedings, and in the approval of State NPDES programs. These requirements carry out the purposes of the public participation requirements of 40 CFR Part 25 (Public Participation), and supersede the requirements of that part as they apply to actions covered under Parts 122, 123, and 124.

(f) State authorities. Nothing in Part 122, 123, or 124 precludes more stringent State regulation of any activity covered by these regulations, whether or not under an approved State program.

(g) Authority. (1) Section 301(a) of CWA provides that "Except as in compliance with this section and sections 302, 306, 307, 318, 402, and 404 of this Act, the discharge of any pollutant by any person shall be unlawful.''
(2) Section 402(a)(1) of CWA provides in part that "The Administrator may, after opportunity for public hearing, issue a permit for the discharge of any pollutant, or combination of pollutants, * * * upon condition that such discharge will meet either all applicable requirements under sections 301, 302, 306, 307, 308, and 403 of this Act, or prior to the taking of necessary implementing actions relating to all such requirements, such conditions as the Administrator determines are necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.''

(3) Section 318(a) of CWA provides that "The Administrator is authorized, after public hearings, to permit the discharge of a specific pollutant or pollutants under controlled conditions associated with an approved aquaculture project under Federal or State supervision pursuant to section 402 of this Act.''

(4) Section 405 of CWA provides, in part, that "Where the disposal of sewage sludge resulting from the operation of a treatment works as defined in section 212 of this Act (including the removal of in-place sewage sludge from one location and its deposit at another location) would result in any pollutant from such sewage sludge entering the navigable waters, such disposal is prohibited except in accordance with a permit issued by the Administrator under section 402 of this Act.''

(5) Section 405(d)(4) of the CWA requires the Administrator, prior to promulgation of standards for sewage sludge use and disposal, to "impose conditions in permits issued to publicly owned treatment works under section 402 of this Act, or take such other measures as the Administrator deems appropriate to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effects which may occur from toxic pollutants in sewage sludge.''

(6) Section 405(f) provides that NPDES permits must include requirements implementing the standards for sludge use and disposal (40 CFR Part 503) "unless such requirements have been included in a permit issued under the appropriate provisions of subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, or the Clean Air Act, or under State permit programs approved by the Administrator * * *.'' Section 405(f) also authorizes the Administrator to issue permits with requirements for sludge use or disposal that assure compliance with 40 CFR Part 503 to any treatment works treating domestic sewage that is not subject to NPDES (i.e., has no point source discharge) and has not been issued a permit that includes applicable 40 CFR Part 503 standards under the other permit programs listed in section 405(f)(1) of the CWA.

(7) Sections 402(b), 318 (b) and (c), and 405 (c) and (f) of CWA authorize EPA approval of State permit programs for discharges from point sources, discharges to aquaculture projects, and use and disposal of sewage sludge.

(8) Section 304(i) of CWA provides that the Administrator shall promulgate guidelines establishing uniform application forms and other minimum requirements for the acquisition of information from dischargers in approved States and establishing minimum procedural and other elements of approved State NPDES programs.

(9) Section 501(a) of CWA provides that "The Administrator is authorized to prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out his functions under this Act.''

(10) Section 101(e) of CWA provides that "Public participation in the development, revision, and enforcement of any regulation, standard, effluent limitation, plan, or program established by the Administrator or any State under this Act shall be provided for, encouraged, and assisted by the Administrator and the States. The Administrator, in cooperation with the States, shall develop and publish regulations specifying minimum guidelines for public participation in such processes.''

(48 FR 14153, Apr. 1, 1983, as amended at 54 FR 18781, May 2, 1989; 55 FR 48062, Nov. 16, 1990)